G L A S S / F R E E F O R M A R C H I T E C T U R E FLOW*|
P R E S E N T A T I O N S E S S I O N S
Architecture and urbanism are to be regarded as multifunctional dynamic systems, and so it is important to pay attention to bionics and to lay stress on climate-active planning based on a complex evaluation of external and internal influences.
That is why the STUDIO of MILO┼á FLORI├üN focuses on:
• Energetic efficient buildings. Projecting energetic efficient buildings in connection with intelligent skins from glass on the base of computer simulation. The fa├žade of glass can be really indicated as intelligent only when it uses natural renewable sources of energy, as the energy of sun or wind, of air flows or of water or earth as resources of heat for ensuring the demands of the building regarding heating, cooling and lighting. For this reason the computer simulations are performed, as well as the tests with models of the buildings in the wind tunel and with the full size models in free space. For the simulations there is often used the CFD-Computational Fluid Dynamics /ÔćĺPLM-Product Lifecycle Management, which can by help of flowing for example of a gas, visually demonstrate the speed, temperature and intensity of air flows so as to use the measures for saving energy effectively. It means that the total energetic conception must be developed in the stage of designing, so as to reach an effective interaction between the fa├žade, its environments and the systems of the buildings. Simultaneously with this kind of designing the application of various types of fa├žade glazing is connected. The skin is usually assembled from transparent, opaque or printed isolation glass panes or from VIG-vacuum isolation glass panes that are embedded into sliding, tilt or turn windows wings. It is possible to integrate fotochromic, termochromic, mechanochromic, chemochromic materials, holographic-optical elements, systems of daylight or photovoltaic cells that prevent from overheating by solar radiation, distribute the dispersed daylight into the rooms and produce energy, into the glazing. Other elements are represented by the panes with electrochromic, gasochromic, electro-optical films, liquid crystals and gels on the principle of PCM-Phase Change Materials. Owing to the fact that recently the glass is transformed into other materials, the members of the Studio are aiming at the materials from plastics as well. ┬╗┬╗┬╗
• Glass as a construction material. Designing with glass as a construction material: glass as material, laminated glass, vacuum glass, isolation glass. Experiences of knowledge are applied into the freeform projects, too. An important role is played by the work with detail and light, not only natural, but also artificial. Various principles of lighting can underline the variety of expressional possibilities. From all of them let us mention: If there is an all-glass project whose bearing construction is a skeleton frame consisting for example of two glass tubes, there are several possibilities of lighting the construction. When only the tubes are lightened and the rest is left without lighting, a levitation impression is reached. When some ceiling panels are lightened, or the fa├žade, and the glass interior is dimmed, we always get another impression of the construction. Specific is the media fa├žade from glass pieces with integrated light diods or with a self-dimming or holographic-optical effect. The studies and the application of innovative and smart materials in bond with various construction systems are connected with it. ┬╗┬╗┬╗
• Softwares on the principle of CAD/CAM and CAD/CAE technology. Projecting of systems that would ensure optimum feasibility of architectures with fantastic shapes of buildings and urban forms which are lately used by the new generation of architects as reaction to the interest in the theory of chaos, fractal geometry, and to the accelerating development in the other spheres, especially in informatics, artificial intelligence, material engineering, molecular biology, genetics and nanoscience. Attention is being paid to adaptable materials and to fully automated construction factories that use the softwares on the principle of CAD/CAM /Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacture/ and CAD/CAE (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Engineering) technologies not only for preparing models and prototypes, but also for their production. Smart factories attending some CNC /Numerically Controlled/ machines decentralize production and bring forward not only new methods, but also the production of individual components for various application. In this connection it is often talled about the designing by the method of algorithmic Digital Prototyping /DP/, Rapid Prototyping /CRP/, and others, which is the moving force of solution of various tasks of development. The advantage of this algorithmic designing is not only a precisely dimense and shaped part from various material, but also in the final stage a perfect object assembled from all the parts in a very short time. ┬╗┬╗┬╗
• Automation and robotization in machine engineering and building. We live in the second stage of the science-technological development based on the convergence of technologies of the four-member group specified by the symbol NBIC /Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno/. At present nanosciences and the nanotechnology, biotechnology and biomedicine including the genetic engineering, information technology including advanced and communication systems and the cognition sciences including neurology are making extraordinary progress. Instead of increasing specialisation that we can still see, the possibilities of general view and unifying not only of different sciences, but also of expert processes are open now. Integration demands sharing the culture across the existing fields of scientific disciplines and a new technical language relying on mathematics of complex systems, physics of structures on the level of nano-dimensions and the hierarchic logic of intelligence.
We believe this is the suitable time for thinking in this sense about the change of approach to planning structures and realizing constructions also in the frame of home building and architecture. It is necessary to apply the results reached in the sphere of sciences that appear, for example, in the form of application of genetic algorithms, cellular algorithms and neural nets into the process of planning of the constructions. The conversion of technologies is based on the interdisciplinary co-operation of another type than the common one in traditional project practice. It offers a significant improvement of our comprehension of change in human perceptive and physical capabilities and an improvement of interaction between the thinking and the tools for optimizing, both individually and in groups. The convergence, as it is generally perceived, promises a direct broadzone connection of the human brain and a machine, an optimizing planning tool and a structure built from materials with predefined properties, with the ability of adaption to changing situations and consequently with a high energetic effectivity that warrants friendliness to the environments in the form of sustainability.
Prognoses predict that the application of conversion will be possible to be introduced not only in industry in the form of an increasing automation, robotization, but similarly in architecture, and this way also in the building industry. ┬╗┬╗┬╗
• Nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this sphere the principle of planning is in the meantime based on the capability of producing rotors from a molecular building set, something that has an axle, a flywheel that can rotate and can be driven by an electric field, light or flow of gas. Individual blocks of the building set consist of molecules with tens to hundreds of atoms. There are quite new materials and so as to make them it is necessary to keep the precise position of the particular chemic-physical groups. The constructions of these materials with precisely defined adaptive structure on the atomic level with integrated molecular device perform various functions, as ventilation, heating, cooling, lighting and others. These structural systems can be programmed in such a way that they may be of an incredibly tine size, they can change thein shape and adjut to the changes of the environments. The form of the project is capable to be have in a distributed manner very similarly to the mutually co-operating cells in human body. Even in this case the individual building components of the structure of the project get their design by means of CAD systems and then they are either directly printed by a special software, or they are manufactured in a fully automated nanofactory. ┬╗┬╗┬╗
• All the above mentioned fields complete each other. The development of new materials and building systems is closely connected with a complex re-elaboration of the processes that include a thoughtful application of computation tools in the course of construction and production. Computation methods became the driving force of evolution and of carrying out experiments in architecture, art subjects and civil engineering. Much of this progress is connected with the availability of powerful computation systems and new software tools that enable the generation and analysis of the systems of structures, as well as the algorithms for looping up, comparing and arranging information. But even more effective depth technology is needed to keep the promises, which the structural morphology based on the intersection of architecture, artificial intelligence and material science. Theoretic systems and mathematical media that connect the computation thinking with the process of construction are developed. The planning forms a generative process that includes the application of the most modern programming technique used for artificial inteligence and computation geometry. The relation between the for mand the technology is variable and it connects non-linear combinations of digital and analogous sequencies, new algorithms and intensive ÔÇ×depthÔÇť computer technologies. The significance lies in the development of algorithms for the simulation of evolutionary and 3D structures including the surface based on the environment. Ideal are the structurally orientated models, where the growth is potencially directed by the whole developing structure by means of existing elements of this structure. The concentration of the growth models allows combinations of atomic structure and mechanical properties with macro-behaviour of the structure as a whole embedded into the dynamic environments. At present the evolution reached the stage, where i tis not necessary to look up the material in a katalog, but it is possible to design the material with concretely required aesthetic and structural properties. It leads to various models for various materials bound on larger structures related to specific properties of the material. It is possible to adept adjustable factors of materials by means of mutual feedback with arising structural morphology as a whole. ┬╗┬╗┬╗
In this connection the members of the Studio of Milo┼í Flori├ín are engaged in designing systems that could ensure optimum feasibility of the freeform architectures on the principle of planning constructions from directly tailored components, in which various functions can be integrated. The members must be able to ÔÇ×get throughÔÇť not only already developed softwares, but they are often forced to adept them or to create fully new softwares and then to apply them to their own solutions: parametric design x generative design x e-motive architecture = algorithmic architecture.
The level of experimentation has achieved the point where it is impossible clearly to distinguish between the form and the contents and at the same time among the graphic art, painting, sculpture, design, building and architecture. It dones to enlarging the repertoir of space division. Applied technologies are tending to a new conception of space in the form of the magnetic space field, the space of particles, etc. The inhabitants of these space do not find their wals according to the marked points, axes, edges and distinctly defined spheres. These are replaced by the distribution of density, the aberrations of direction, gradients, vectors, and so on, creating a new ontology that defines what it means to be somewhere.
The digital revolution together with the development of new smart materials, principles of adaptive buildings based on the studies of biology and on the technology of making prototypes has principally changed the way of planning, directing, controling and building constructions. For capturing new relations between the developing qualities of material, structural morphology, production technology and architectural expression new tools and techniques are necessary, in whose frame the integration of materials and production processes occur by the help of generative computer processes.
*/ FLORIAN╬äS STUDIO STUDENT WORK